For every great solution, there is a cost. Sometimes it is in other opportunities not taken as resources are devoted to the chosen option.
Typically, it will also be in the life cycle of it, from its creation to its use to its maintenance to its end of life.
A truly smart city will have automated & in-depth understandings of any products it uses
- from initial costs ($ + what went into the production & environmental, etc. costs of that)
- to its impacts-both positive & negative-on the population it is in place for
- to maintenance requirements (& their associated costs of all stripes)
- to a plan for reusing where apt and effective and what to do w/ bits the city can't do that with (and the costs associated w/ that)This goes for big projects down to every little smartifying sensor. In understanding the life cycle, it can better understand which solutions are worth using & where getting a little smarter now means being kinda dumb, from a full life cycle perspective